The effects of mannitol on the transport of ciprofloxacin across respiratory epithelia.

Inhalation of antibiotics and mucolytics are the most important combination of inhaled drugs for chronic obstructive lung diseases and have become a standard part of treatment. However, it is yet to be determined whether the administration of a mucolytic has an effect on the transport rate of antibiotics across the airway epithelial cells. Consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhalation dry powder, specifically mannitol, on ciprofloxacin transport using Calu-3 air interface cell model. Transport studies of ciprofloxacin HCl were performed using different configurations including single spray-dried ciprofloxacin alone, co-spray dried ciprofloxacin with mannitol and deposition of mannitol prior to ciprofloxacin deposition. To understand the mechanism of transport and interactions between the drugs, pH measurements of apical surface liquid and further transport studies were performed with ciprofloxacin base, with and without the presence of ion channel/transport inhibitors such as disodium cromoglycate and furosemide. Mannitol was found to delay absorption of ciprofloxacin HCl through the increase in ASL volume and subsequent reduction in pH. Conversely, ciprofloxacin base had a higher transport rate after mannitol deposition. This study clearly demonstrates that the deposition of mannitol prior to ciprofloxacin on the air-interface Calu-3 cell model has an effect on its transport rate. This was also dependent on the salt form of the drug and the timing and sequence of formulations administered.