Investigation into physical-chemical variables affecting the manufacture and dissolution of wet-milled clarithromycin nano-particles

A critical problem associated with poor water-soluble drugs is their low and variable bioavailability, which is derived from the slow dissolution and erratic absorption. Nano-formulation has been identified as one approach to enhance the rate and extent of drug absorption for compounds that demonstrate limited water solubility. This study aimed to investigate the physico-chemical variables that affect the manufacture, dissolution and consequent bioavailability of wet-milled clarithromycin (CLA) nanoparticles, a macrolide antibiotic. CLA nanoparticles were prepared using wet milling method followed by freeze-drying. Different stabilizer systems, consisting of surfactants and polymers alone or their combinations were studied to determine the optimum conditions for producing nano-sized CLA particles. In vitro characterizations of the CLA nanoparticles were performed using photon correlation spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution efficiency test. Results showed that in general the wet milling process did not modify the crystallinty of the CLA nanoparticles. The poloxamers and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) stabilizers resulted in nanoparticles with the smallest particle size and best dissolution rates. Furthermore, poloxamers F68 and F127, and PVA stabilizers demonstrated the best performance in increasing dissolution efficacy.